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1. What must be the nature of a covariate when doing ESEM (on ordinal outcomes): can it be continuous, ordinal, binary? 2. As covariate cannot be specified in CATEGORICAL, how does Mplus 'know' the distribution of the covariate? Could you please give some references where this topic is explained? 3. You wrote in another thread: "You can include the covariates in the analysis by mentioning their variances in the MODEL command. They are then treated as dependent variables and distributional assumptions are made about them". Could you please give references where such a case is shown? Thank you very much in advance. 


12. As in regular regression, covariates can be binary or continuous and in both cases are treated as binary. See any regression textbook to read about this. 3. I know of no reference to this. It is what you do in Mplus to change the status of an observed exogenous variable from independent to dependent. 


Thanks Linda for your answers. I am realizing that I am still on a steep learning curve, here... 3. Sorry to insist, but could you please specify where in the Mplus literature I could find explanation on the matter (I looked in the user guide but couldn't find any examples)? I'm not sure I really understand the reasons and implications of changing an observed exogenous variable from independent to dependent, hence I'm not sure it is what I want to do. Thank you for your time. 


You would only bring the covariates into the model to avoid the observations being deleted due to missing data on the covariates. You should not concern yourself with this. 


Hi Linda, Bringing the covariates (e.g. X1, X2) into the model would be done simply like this? MODEL: X1; X2; 


Yes. 

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