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In your MPlus version 5 User's Guide, I understand the following to define a linear growth model: i s  y1@0 y2@1 y3@2 y4@3; In 'An introduction to Multilevel Modeling Techniques' by Heck & Thomas, the following seems to do the same job: i BY y1@1 y2@1 y3@1 y4@1; s BY y1@0 y2@1 y3@2 y4@3; [y1y4@0 i s]; y1@0; Does the latter define a single line of best fit while the former define a curve made up of line segments connecting y1 to y2, y2 to y3 and y3 to y4? Thank you, Eoin 


i s  y1@0 y2@1 y3@2 y4@3; and i BY y1@1 y2@1 y3@1 y4@1; s BY y1@0 y2@1 y3@2 y4@3; [y1y4@0 i s]; are the same. See the growth modeling table in Chapter 16 of the user's guide where the BY and  specifications are given for several growth models. 

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