on page 2 Mplus LANGUAGE ADDENDUM 7.1 is said that the The alignment optimization method consists of three steps: 1. Analysis of a configural model with the same number of factors and same pattern of zero factor loadings in all groups. 2. Alignment optimization of the measurement parameters, factor loadings and intercepts/thresholds according to a simplicity criterion that favors few non-invariant measurement parameters. 3. Adjustment of the factor means and variances in line with the optimal alignment. my question is why is that a model with ALIGNMENT = FREE (CONFIGURAL); give the same estimates as ALIGNMENT = FREE; because i was thinking you need to be able to compare the configural and the scalar but their estimates are the same.